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Calo, Ambra (2020) 'Durgā Mahiṣāsuramardinī in Likely Tantric Buddhist Context from the Northern Indian Subcontinent to 11th-Century Bali [Durga Mahiṣāsuramardinī dalam konteks agama Buddha Tantrayana dari Subkontinen India Utara dan Bali pada abad ke-11].' Pratu: Journal of Buddhist and Hindu Art, Architecture and Archaeology of Ancient to Premodern Southeast Asia, 1 (3). pp. 1-20.

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This study examines the significance of the originally Hindu goddess Durgā Mahiṣāsuramardinī (Durgā slaying the buffalo demon) in Tantric Buddhist temple contexts of the 8th–11th century in Afghanistan and northeastern India, and 11th-century Bali. Taking a cross-regional approach, it considers the genesis of Tantric Buddhism, its transmission to Indonesia, and its significance in Bali during the 10th–11th century. Drawing primarily on archaeological and iconographic evidence, it suggests that Durgā Mahiṣāsuramardinī is likely to have reached Bali as part of a late 10th–11th century phase of renewed transmission of Tantric Buddhism from the northeastern Indian subcontinent to Indonesia, following an initial late 7th–8th century phase.

Item Type: Journal Article
Keywords: Bali, Durgā, Heruka, Mahiṣāsuramardinī, maritime networks, Padang Lawas, Tantric Buddhism, Tantric Śaivism, Tapa Sardār, Uḍḍiyāna, Vajrayāna, Vikramaśīla, Warmadewa
SOAS Departments & Centres: Departments and Subunits > School of Arts > Department of the History of Art & Archaeology
SOAS Open Access Journals
SOAS Open Access Journals > Pratu: Journal of Buddhist and Hindu Art, Architecture and Archaeology of Ancient to Premodern Southeast Asia
Subjects: C Auxiliary Sciences of History > CC Archaeology
N Fine Arts > N Visual arts (General)
N Fine Arts > NB Sculpture
ISSN: 2634176X
Copyright Statement: Articles are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-NC 4.0). This enables all content to be shared, copied and redistributed in any medium or format, with permissible exceptions where required. See individual figure captions for the copyright status of illustrations. For more information see
DOI (Digital Object Identifier):
Date Deposited: 19 May 2020 09:51
Funders: Other

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