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Bajpai, Shiva G. (1967) Inter-state relations in Northern India, c. A.D. 800-1200. PhD thesis. SOAS University of London. DOI:

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The present work is a study of the theory of inter-state relations in Northern India from c. A.D. 800 to 1200. Chapter I deals with the nature, scope, and source materials of the present enquiry and points out that the traditional theory of inter-state relations is interpreted and re-stated by our Sanskrit authorities. In Chapter II we consider the concept of the state and maintain that a state comprising seven constituent elements, indicating its sovereignty and power, is the subject of the theory of inter-state relations and that feudatories are ignored. It is also shown that sovereignty is a relative concept in the inter-state sphere, and states are classified on the basis of power, independence, payment of tribute, and political allegiance. Chapter III explains that the theory of inter-state relations is a corollary of the concept of the state, and it is based on the assumption of conflict of power and ambition for political supremacy among states. After a brief introduction to the development of the three concepts of inter-state relations, viz. mandala (circle of states), s?dgunya (sixfold policy), and up?yas (political expedients), we discuss the mandala system, which outlines a hypothetical pattern of inter-state relations based on the principles of geo-politics and power-politics. It provides a framework for the conduct of relations of a king desirous of conquest and supremacy over others. Chapters IV to VII deal with the various aspects of the sixfold policy. We have attempted to define and analyse the policies of peace, war, marching, staying quiet, dual policy and seeking shelter and have pointed out that each one of them is an instrument of the politico-military strategy for overcoming enemies during vicissitudes of power. It has been shown that all six policies sire concerned with hostile relations and ?sana (staying quiet) is not 'neutrality', as some modern scholars contend. Chapter VIII deals with the political expedients and analyses their contents. It shows that the means of diplomacy and war are comprehensive for attaining success in inter-state relations. It is pointed out in conclusion that the dominant theme of the theory of inter-state relations as well as the dynastic history of our period is conflict of power and struggle for supremacy, which indicates the impact of political ideas on inter-dynastic relations.

Item Type: Theses (PhD)
SOAS Departments & Centres: SOAS Research Theses > Proquest
DOI (Digital Object Identifier):
Date Deposited: 16 Oct 2018 15:13

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