SOAS Research Online

A Free Database of the Latest Research by SOAS Academics and PhD Students

[skip to content]

Dorward, Andrew, Anderson, Simon, Nava Bernal, Yolanda, Pattison, J., Paz, R., Rushton, Jonathan and Sanchez Vera, E. (2009) 'Hanging In, Stepping up and Stepping Out: Livelihood Aspirations and Strategies of the Poor Development in Practice.' Development in Practice, 19 (2). pp. 240-247.

Text (Pre-print) - Draft Version
Download (54kB) | Preview


In recent years understanding of poverty and of ways in which people escape from or fall into poverty has become more holistic. This should improve the capabilities of policy analysts and others working to reduce poverty, but it also makes analysis more complex. This paper describes a simple schema which integrates multidimensional, multilevel and dynamic understandings of poverty, of poor people’s livelihoods, and of changing roles of agricultural systems. The paper suggests three broad types of strategy pursued by poor people: ‘hanging in’; ‘stepping up’; and ‘stepping out’. This simple schema explicitly recognises the dynamic aspirations of poor people; diversity among them; and livelihood diversification. It also brings together aspirations of poor people with wider sectoral, inter-sectoral and macro-economic questions about policies necessary for realisation of those aspirations.

Item Type: Journal Article
Keywords: poverty, livelihoods, development
SOAS Departments & Centres: Legacy Departments > Faculty of Law and Social Sciences > School of Finance and Management
Legacy Departments > Faculty of Law and Social Sciences > School of Finance and Management > Centre for Development, Environment and Policy (CeDEP)
ISSN: 13649213
DOI (Digital Object Identifier):
Date Deposited: 20 Jan 2009 16:41

Altmetric Data


Download activity - last 12 monthsShow export options
Downloads since deposit
6 month trend
6 month trend
Accesses by country - last 12 monthsShow export options
Accesses by referrer - last 12 monthsShow export options

Repository staff only

Edit Item Edit Item