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Nelson, Matthew J. (2022) 'Regime Types, Regime Transitions, and Religion in Pakistan.' In: Cammett, Melani and Jones, Pauline, (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Politics in Muslim Societies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 115-142.

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Abstract

How does religion shape regime types, and regime transitions, in Muslim-majority states? Focusing on Pakistan, this chapter examines the limited role of religious groups and religious ideas in driving political transitions between military and civilian-led regimes. Since the partition of India and the formation of Pakistan in 1947, civilian-led regimes have been removed in three military coups (1958, 1977, 1999); only one of these (1977) was framed in religious terms. Protesters later helped to oust Pakistan’s military regimes in 1969–1970, 1988, and 2007–2008. Again, these protests stressed nonreligious more than religious demands. Within Pakistan, ostensibly “democratizing” transitions have typically preserved separate domains (e.g., the security sector) for military decision-making; these reserved domains have limited the scope of democracy. This chapter, however, moves beyond military to ostensibly religious limitations on democracy, noting that, while nonreligious protests often figure in transitions away from authoritarian rule, religious constitutional provisions diminishing the rights of non-Muslims have produced what scholars of hybrid regimes call an “exclusionary” or “illiberal” democracy.

Item Type: Book Chapters
Keywords: Pakistan, hybrid regimes, regime transition, democracy, authoritarianism, religion, Islam
SOAS Departments & Centres: Departments and Subunits > Department of Politics & International Studies
ISBN: 9780190931056
Copyright Statement: This is the version of the chapter accepted for publication in Cammett, Melani and Jones, Pauline, (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Politics in Muslim Societies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 115-142 (2022). Re-use is subject to the publisher’s terms and conditions
DOI (Digital Object Identifier): https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190931056.013.18
Date Deposited: 07 Jul 2023 09:35
URI: https://eprints.soas.ac.uk/id/eprint/39714

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