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Adu, Emmanuel Ofori (1976) British Diplomatic Attitudes Towards Japanese Economic and Political Activities in Korea, South Manchuria, Kwantung and Shantung 1904-1922. PhD thesis. SOAS University of London. DOI:

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The working of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance has been studied in detail by some scholars but no systematic attempt has hitherto been made to assess how far British diplomatic attitudes were affected by Japan's steady expansion into North East Asia during the period of its existence. This thesis attempts to provide an answer to that question. The thesis shows consistent British support for Japan's hegemony in Korea, South Manchuria and Kwantung in place of Russia during the early stages of the second Alliance. This policy continued even when Japan and Russia entered into accord to resist encroachments on their rights in those territories by certain British business interests and by the Chinese and United States Governments. Nor did it change when Japan annexed Korea. Although Britain made no change of policy towards Japan after the Russo-Japanese accord and the annexation of Korea, she felt that Japan aimed at dominating South Manchuria and Kwantung to the exclusion of other foreign interests. When, therefore, Britain's position in the Yangtze appeared to be threatened by French and Japanese business interests, the Foreign Office reasserted Britain's rights in the region against all other Powers and consequently was precluded from attempting to restrain Japan's moves to strengthen Japanese control over South Manchuria and from supporting prospective British concessionaires in the region. During the first world war, Britain needed Japanese assistance in the Far East but she felt unable to resist possible Japanese encroachments on China, She, therefore, tried to contain this threat by offering Japan the German lease of Kiaochow. Britain then found herself in difficulty as a result of her commitment to the Japan on/one hand and American and Chinese opposition on the other. She tried unsuccessfully to extricate herself from this difficulty at the Peace Conference, The end of the war witnessed demonstrations in Korea and China against Japanese policies. These developments provoked a review of British and Japanese policies in East Asia by the Foreign Office, which came out with proposals for either the replacement of the Alliance with an Anglo-American-Japanese Entente or a radical modification of the Treaty of Alliance.

Item Type: Theses (PhD)
SOAS Departments & Centres: SOAS Research Theses > Proquest
DOI (Digital Object Identifier):
Date Deposited: 12 Oct 2020 17:32

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