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Gupta, Rabindranath (1970) Socio-Economic Conditions in the Gangetic Valley From Circa the Sixth to the Second Century B.C. PhD thesis. SOAS University of London. DOI:

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In the present study we consider the following topics as attempt to describe the socio-economic life of the people in the Gangetic Valley from about the sixth century B.C. to the second century B.C. For this purpose, we here mainly taken into consideration the material culture of the people whisks scald be verified aid established by items archaeological and literary sources. Moreover, material culture reflects certain aspects of social culture, also considered in this study. An endeavour is made to find out the people's adjustments adaptations to natural environment and the utilisation of natural resources that contributed in the formation of their socio-economic conditions. This study also deals with changes that took plane in the material culture during the periods of this survey and their effect on economic and social conditions. The line of investigation is elaborated in the following: Chapter-I: the growth of settlement types is relation to their geographical, environmental, political, economic and also religious factors, as well as the different types of houses which were not only influenced by the above mentioned factors but also reveal the presence of economic and social distinctions snag the inhabitants of these settlements. Chapter-II: agricultural system as a whole. The land types and their ownerships, revenue, irrigation systems agricultural castes and tools used for agricultural operations, etc., discussed is relation to the economic conditions of the states and the people; also changes, if any, that took place is the agricultural and land systems during the periods of this survey. The chapter also includes some of the main agricultural products and food-habits of the people in relation to the geographical and climatic factors, together with the formalities and etiquette associated with taking food. Chapter-III: the growth and development of different kinds of arts and crate in relation to is availability of different kinds of vials, minerals end other natural resources. These industries which germinated from the natural resources not only reveal the skill and artistic abilities of the various artists and craftsmen and the gradual development and advance In different kinds of arts and crafts, but also show the well developed knowledge of the people in utilising these natural resources for the improvement of economic conditions of both state end individuals. These industries reveal the presence of different kinds of occupational groups in the society who served the needs of different kinds of arts and crafts for both essentials end luxuries. Some of the arts and crafts such as pottery, terracotta figurines, ornaments, etc., have been dismissed in detail to show the gradual development in the field of arts and crafts. Besides these, the use of different kinds of materials as gold, silver, copper, iron, precious and semiprecious stones etc., the manufacture of which clearly indicate the presence of persons different economic and social status in the society. Certain aspects of social life are revealed by different kinds of ornaments, terracotta figurines, dresses, pottery types, etc; also religious beliefs of the people are the some extent revealed. Chapter-IV: the different kinds of traders who were engaged in commercial activities from early times, not only within the but also with outside countries through land and sea routes. Some of the common commodities for trade are also taken into account. It also includes different kinds of media of exchanges that ware used for commercial transactions during the periods of this survey, and the conclusion inferred from the analysis of the archaeological and literary data used for the study of these topics.

Item Type: Theses (PhD)
SOAS Departments & Centres: SOAS Research Theses > Proquest
DOI (Digital Object Identifier):
Date Deposited: 12 Oct 2020 17:23

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