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Waung, William Sui King (1972) The Opium Question in China 1860-1887. PhD thesis. SOAS University of London. DOI:

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The Opium Question in China from 1360 to 1887 was composed of three inter-related aspects: the taxation of foreign opium; Chinese customs blockade of Hong Kong (and Macao); and the growth of native (Chinese) opium. The Question arose as a result of the legalization of the opium trade in 1860. During the period that this Question was in existences attempts were made by the Chinese and British, governments to reach an agreement over the taxation of foreign opium and to devise means to put an end to smuggling from Hong Kong so that the blockade could be lifted. The Alcock Convention of 1869 and the Chefoo convention of 1876 contained stipulations that would, provide solutions to these out-standing problems. Their rejection by the British government meant that negotiations had to be continued, both at Peking and. London, and on the local scene, at Hong Kong and Canton. Signing of the Additional Article to the Chefoo Convention in 1885 provided settlement of the taxation issue; and promulgation of the Ordinance on opium in 1887 by the Hong Kong government solved the blockade issue. During this period, the growth of native opium Greatly increased and it competed successfully with the Indian import in China. This fact, together with the increasing activity of the Anti-opium society in Britain, contributed much to the agreement of 1885. This dissertation is concerned with an analysis of the Opium Question briefly explained in the preceding paragraph. It also analyses the various governments and personalities involved. For Britain, these included the Home government with its Foreign, colonial and India Offices; the Hong Kong and. Indian governments; and the diplomatic service in China and the Governors of Hong Kong. For China, these included the Imperial and provincial Governments, the Foreign Inspectorate, and responsible officials such as Li Hung-chang, Tso Tsung-t'ang and Tseng Chi-tse. A more astute understanding of Sino-British relations during this period, both diplomatic and commercial, is reached by such analyses.

Item Type: Theses (PhD)
SOAS Departments & Centres: SOAS Research Theses > Proquest
DOI (Digital Object Identifier):
Date Deposited: 12 Oct 2020 17:18

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