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Wang, Yan, Abbasi, Kaleemullah, Babajide, Bola and Yekini, Kemi (2019) 'Corporate Governance Mechanisms and Firm Performance: Evidence from the Emerging Market Following the Revised CG Code.' Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, 20 (1). pp. 158-174.

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PURPOSE: This study examines the extent to which board characteristics and ownership structure affect firm performance with specific focus on providing new empirical insights following the revised Corporate Governance (CG) code 2012. /// DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: This study uses a sample of non-financial firms listed on Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX)-100 index for the years 2011 to 2014. Firm performance is measured by accounting-based performance indicators (ROA and ROE) and market-based performance indicators (Tobin’s Q and MTB). This study employs multivariate regression techniques including Fixed Effects Model (FE) and Two-Stage Least Squares (2SLS). // FINDINGS: The findings show that board diversity increases over the two time periods (Pre-2012 and Post-2012), whereas there are cases that companies have not fully complied with the revised CG code 2012 in terms of board independence. In addition, the multiple regression results show that firm performance is negatively and significantly associated with institutional ownership. Nevertheless, the results show that board size, board independent, board diversity and board meetings do not have significant impact on firm performance. The findings are fairly consistent and robust across two time periods (Pre-2012 and Post 2012) and a number of econometric models that sufficiently address the potential endogeneity problems. /// ORIGINALITY/VALUE: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first empirical study which investigates the impact of the compliance and implementation of 2012 corporate governance code on firm performance in Pakistan. This study is different from the most prior studies in that we utilize independent non-executive directors rather than conventional non-executive directors to measure board independence.

Item Type: Journal Article
Keywords: Corporate governance, Board characteristics, Gender diversity, Ownership structure, Firm performance, PSX-100 index
SOAS Departments & Centres: Departments and Subunits > School of Finance & Management
ISSN: 14720701
Copyright Statement: © 2019 Emerald Publishing Limited. This is the accepted manuscript of an article published by Emerald in Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, available online:
DOI (Digital Object Identifier):
Date Deposited: 29 Nov 2019 15:42

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