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Siddiqi, Amir Hasan (1934) Caliphate and kingship in Medieval Persia. PhD thesis. SOAS University of London. DOI:

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The Thesis opens with a short survey of the political conditions at Baghdad in the middle of the third/ninth century, showing how far the theory of the functions of the Caliphate corresponded to the actual practice of the time. The "revolt" of the Saffarids by extorting certain concessions from the Caliphate began the separation of temporal from religious authority, the former being inherited by the Samanids who otherwise remained loyal. The second chapter shows the encroachments of the Buwayhids upon the Caliph's temporal power at Baghdad, and describes the powers that were still retained by the Caliphs. This in turn led to a change of attitude on the part of the Samanids who, for political reasons, did not recognize certain Caliphs appointed by the Buwayhids but continued to recognize the deposed ones. The substitution for the Samanids of Mahmud of Ghazna marks an important step towards the emergence of a Sunni Sultanate, and an enquiry is made into the character and application of the Juridical conditions laid down for such governors. The third chapter describes the setting up a "Universal" Sunni Sultanate invested by the Caliph with full temporal authority in the persons of the Great Saljuqs, and the dual government at Baghdad, with the difficulties which this involved, A new political theory now makes its appearance in the works of Nidham-al-Mulk and Ghazzali. In consequence of the wars of succession the Caliphs are able to assert their political independence in Baghdad and its neighbourhood, but at the cost of a permanent rift with the Sultanate, and a confused situation of claims and counterclaims appears as the political legacy of the Saljuq Sultanate. The fourth chapter shows the development of the Sultanate with a completely self-constituted institution under the Khwarazm-shahs, and their adoption not only of an attitude of independence of the Caliphate but even of a claim to control its activities. The destruction of the power of the Khwarazm-shahs by the Mongols temporarily ends the dispute, but the apparent victory of the Caliphate is an illusion, which vanishes on its own destruction in 656/1258.

Item Type: Theses (PhD)
SOAS Departments & Centres: SOAS Research Theses > Proquest
DOI (Digital Object Identifier):
Date Deposited: 16 Oct 2018 15:21

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