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El-Nagar, Omer (1969) West Africa and the Muslim pilgrimage: An historical study with special reference to the nineteenth century. PhD thesis. SOAS University of London. DOI:

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Pilgrimage is one of five duties in Islam; it is obligatory once in a life-time under certain conditions. This study deals with the development of the pilgrimage movement from West Africa. The introduction outlines the pilgrimage ceremonies, the interpretations of the four main Schools of figh, the duty of pilgrimage, of major pilgrimage organisations outside West Africa and discusses the scope and sources of the study. The history of the pilgrimage can be traced back to the early periods of Islamisation (c. 1100), Part 1 covers the pre-nineteenth century period. Characterised by royal interest in pilgrimage, the regional survey given in this part provides an historical background to the nineteenth century which is the special concern of the study. Part 2 discusses the attitudes, both theoretical and practical, of the main Jihad states. It attempts to assess the influence of major doctrines and events in numerically reinforcing the pilgrimage movement. An outline of the pilgrimage routes during the nineteenth century is also provided. Part 3 discusses two themes in the pilgrimage factor, reform and education and makes general observations on local attitudes to the pilgrimage. Six appendices illustrate types of literature related to the pilgrimage in West Africa.

Item Type: Theses (PhD)
SOAS Departments & Centres: SOAS Research Theses > Proquest
DOI (Digital Object Identifier):
Date Deposited: 16 Oct 2018 15:15

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