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Clarence-Smith, William (2015) 'Middle Eastern states and the Philippines under early American rule, 1898-1919.' In: Peacock, Andrew C. S. and Teh Gallop, Annabel, (eds.), From Anatolia to Aceh: Ottomans, Turks and Southeast Asia. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 199-219. (Proceedings of the British Academy)

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Faced with Moro Muslim resistance in the southern Philippines from 1898, America sought help from Middle Eastern rulers. The Ottoman Empire played the central role, although Egypt and Persia also became involved. In 1899 the American ambassador in Istanbul persuaded the sultan, as Caliph, to order the Moros to submit. In 1913 the Ottoman sultan appointed a ‘high teacher’ for the Moros, Shaykh Wajih al-Kilani, from Palestine. Expelled from the Philippines by the Americans in early 1914, Wajih went to Washington to plead his cause, but died in Virginia in 1916. The Ottomans usually relied on European consuls to protect their nationals resident in the Philippines, but the ‘Young Turks’ appointed a career consul in Manila in 1910–11. After April 1917, Ottoman subjects became ‘allies of enemy’, despite the largely ‘Syrian’ community protesting its allegiance to the USA. After the First World War, the US ceased to court Middle Eastern states.

Item Type: Book Chapters
SOAS Departments & Centres: Departments and Subunits > School of History, Religions & Philosophies > Department of History
Legacy Departments > Faculty of Arts and Humanities > Department of History
ISBN: 9780197265819
DOI (Digital Object Identifier):
Date Deposited: 21 May 2016 13:10

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