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Ghose, Dilip Kumar (1963) British Relations with Kashmir 1885-1893. PhD thesis. SOAS University of London. DOI:

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This thesis primarily deals with British relations with the State of Jammu and Kashmir between 1885 and 1893. During that time the State was brought in line with the other Native States of British India by the imposition of a Political Resident, and a beginning was made for its modernisation by introducing a series of reforms. The responsibility for introducing this change devolved upon Lord Dufferin, but the policy which led to it had been the result of mature deliberation by successive Governors-General since the creation of the State in 1846. Pratap Singh, the ruler of Kashmir, opposed the appointment of a British Resident, although he agreed to introduce reforms himself. But he was not an able ruler, and worse still, there were rival factions at his Court. Further complications set in owing to the interference of the Residents and their zeal for power. As a result, reform measures made little progress and factional conflicts were embittered. The anomaly of the situation reached its climax with Pratap Singh's resignation of power and his consequent supersession. The task of governance then fell upon a State Council, pratap, of course, soon appealed for his restoration, but Lansdowne decided to try the Council rather than the Maharaja. And, if eventually he agreed to restore Pratap partially, he went ahead vigorously with the scheme of reform. It involved, inter alia, the reorganisation of the Kashmir Army for imperial defence which also necessitated the re-establishment of the Gilgit Agency. That measure was a means to consolidate British influence along the Kashmir frontiers by checking tribal inroads and foreign intruders like Afghanistan and Russia. The latter object could only be secured by having the Kashmir frontiers clearly defined. This was done by the Durand Agreement of 1893, which defined the Indo-Afghan frontiers and set a limit to Russian aggression.

Item Type: Theses (PhD)
SOAS Departments & Centres: SOAS Research Theses > Proquest
DOI (Digital Object Identifier):
Date Deposited: 12 Oct 2020 17:14

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