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Mohamad, Abdul Munim Rashad (1963) The 'Abbasid Caliphate 575/1179-656/1258. PhD thesis. SOAS University of London. DOI: https://doi.org/10.25501/SOAS.00029430

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Abstract

Although the history of 'Abbasid 'Iraq in the second half of the twelfth and the beginning of the thirteenth century has been least studied, yet the events of this period were of marked importance in the history of 'Iraq in particular and the Muslim world in general. Within this period fall the decline of the Seljuq rule, the rise of the Khwarizmian power, the subjugation of many Muslim countries by a heathen monarch, the Mongol, and finally the abolition of the traditional 'Abbasid Caliphate of Baghdad. 'Iraq lost its position as the centre of the Muslim world and became a vassal province of this heathen empire, 1. The theme of the present work is to study the period of the last four 'Abbasid Caliphs: al-Nasir (1180-1225), al-Zahir (1225-6), al-Mustan-sir (1226-1242) and al-Musta'sim (1242-1258) and their political, religious, social and economic activities which aimed at restoring the lost authority of the Caliphate. 2. Chapter I treats of the political status of the Caliphate and the attempts of the Caliphs to establish their temporal rule and to extend their small principality. Al-Nasir succeeded in extending his dominions northwards to Takrit, northeastwards to Daquq and southeastwards, conquering Khuzistan. 3. Chapter II describes the religious policy of these Caliphs and their steps to confirm their spiritual position. Al-Nasir tried to reconcile in his person the different classes of the people by adopting and patronizing the chivalrous order, al-Futuwwa, and by transmitting the Hadith. Although he was successful in reviving the position of his Caliphate among the Muslims of his time, yet he was not able to achieve either the unity of Islam or the abolition of the rivalry between the Sunni and the Shi'a communities in his kingdom. This rivalry persisted and because of it the internal stability of the Caliphate was undermined in the reign of al-Musta'sim, 4. Chapter III deals with the non-Muslim communities - the Dhmmis - and their political, social and economic position in the Caliphate. 5. The relations with the Muslim rulers are treated in various chapters of the thesis. 6. Chapter IV treats of the Wazirate, with short biographical notes on the Wazirs and Na'ib Wazirs (acting Wazirs) who came to power in this period, with a special emphasis on their position in administering the internal and external affairs of the Caliphate. 7. Chapter V describes the revenue and the financial administration, Al-Nasir's fiscal measures were adequate enough to bring more revenue to the state but the economic decline of 'Iraq which occurred during the reign of the last Caliph resulted in a deficiency in the revenue. Subsequently the government was obliged to reduce its expenditure on its military organisation by reducing the number of troops. This, no doubt, made impossible the Caliphate's resistance to the Mongol invasion. 8. The ease with which the Caliphate was conquered by the Mongols in 1258 can be attributed to the internal state of affairs in Baghdad and to the superior organisation of the Mongol military forces.

Item Type: Theses (PhD)
SOAS Departments & Centres: SOAS Research Theses > Proquest
DOI (Digital Object Identifier): https://doi.org/10.25501/SOAS.00029430
Date Deposited: 16 Oct 2018 15:13
URI: https://eprints.soas.ac.uk/id/eprint/29430

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