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Cudsi, Alexander Solon (1978) The rise of political parties in the Sudan, 1936-1946. PhD thesis. SOAS University of London. DOI:

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A number of factors contributed to the rise of political parties in the Sudan. Firstly, there was the discord in nationalist circles concerning the means most suitable for the quickest realization of the Sudan's independence. Some nationalists advocated a militant approach, even overt opposition to the Condominium Administration if need be; others sought to achieve the desired objective through co-operation with the Government. In due course, the militants gained the upper hand, a conflict with the Government developed and they turned to Egypt for support. The accompanying disagreement on the Sudan's political relation to Egypt exacerbated further the divisions in the nationalist movement. Secondly, the economic hardships prevalent in the Sudan during the war had generated considerable discontent among various sections of the population. The militants exploited the situation to mobilize political support for their demand for an immediate and effective participation by Sudanese in the government of their country. Thirdly, the rivalry between the two major religious orders served as another channel through which the nationalist struggle spread to the population in the countryside. Unlike the head of the Khatmiyya sect, Sayyid cAbd al-Rahman al-Mahdi cherished definite political ambitions. In the light of the growing debate on the Sudan's relation to Egypt, the political issues inevitably became intertwined with sectarian interests. Fourthly, British and Egyptian attitudes to the political future of the Sudan influenced nationalist commitments. British attitudes conveyed the impression that they were not intending to grant independence to the Sudan but rather prolong the lifetime of the Condominium. The Egyptians, on the other hand, spoke of a free and united Nile Valley, with the Sudan having its own internal administration. Sudanese nationalists were accordingly divided on whether or not union with Egypt was the shortest path to independence. Political parties thus emerged as organizations primarily dedicated to the realization of Independence through the one or the other means.

Item Type: Theses (PhD)
SOAS Departments & Centres: SOAS Research Theses > Proquest
DOI (Digital Object Identifier):
Date Deposited: 16 Oct 2018 14:59

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