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Sikhondze, B. A. B. (1989) The development of Swazi cotton cultivation, 1904-85. PhD thesis. SOAS University of London. DOI:

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Settler farmers in Swaziland failed in their attempt to confine cotton production to their estates partly because of capital limitations. During the First World War some Swazi had fought hard to legitimise cotton production by them, and this became manifest in the 1920s and 1930s when early Swazi cotton growing entrepreneurs emerged, particularly notable being the role of Swazi pastors of religion. But since the cotton price was low, Swazi advances were limited until the late 1950s when some growers made relatively great strides in cotton cultivation especially in the south eastern area. External brokers provided credit for prosperous growers while neglecting other groups, and their produce remained insignificant. Other cultivators among the progressive farmers already owned cattle which were invested in cotton production. Swazi exploitation of credit provided by brokers, the Colonial State, and Swazi Administration in the late 1960s, facilitated social differentiation among cotton growers. Properous growers began to purchase title deed land by the late 1960s, and more in the mid-1970s. At that juncture cotton production expanded due to its high price which attracted more growers from less suited parts of the territory. With prosperity in cotton, traditional cattle were cross-bred to sell for more money to finance cotton. Rich entrepreneurs added other businesses to cotton growing. Cotton expansion led to the formation of a cooperative in south east Swaziland to facilitate trade. To link the area to the rest of the territory, due to multiplied economic activities there, the infrastructure was improved, and economic progress was promoted. Schools, clinics and shops were provided by the cotton growing community.

Item Type: Theses (PhD)
SOAS Departments & Centres: SOAS Research Theses > Proquest
DOI (Digital Object Identifier):
Date Deposited: 16 Oct 2018 14:57

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