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The Subclassification of Songhay and its Historical Implications

Souag, Lameen (2012) 'The Subclassification of Songhay and its Historical Implications.' Journal of African Languages and Linguistics, 33 (2). pp. 181-213.

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Abstract

This paper seeks to establish the first cladistic subgrouping of Songhay explicitly based on shared arbitrary innovations, a prerequisite both for distinguishing recent loans from valid extra-Songhay comparanda and for determining how Songhay spread. The results indicate that the Northern Songhay languages of the Sahara form a valid subfamily, even though no known historical records link Tabelbala to the others, and that Northern Songhay and Western Songhay (spoken around Timbuktu and Djenné) together form a valid subfamily, Northwestern Songhay. The speakers of Proto-Northern Songhay practised cultivation and permanent architecture, but were unfamiliar with date palms. Proto-Northwestern Songhay was already in contact with Berber and probably (perhaps indirectly) with Arabic, and was spoken along the Niger River. Proto-Songhay itself appears likely to have been in contact with Gur languages, confirming its relatively southerly location. This result is compatible with two scenarios for the northerly spread of Songhay. On Hypothesis A, Northern Songhay spread out from an oasis north-east of Gao, probably Tadmakkat or Takedda, and Northwestern Songhay had been spoken in areas west of Gao which now speak Eastern Songhay. On Hypothesis B, Northern Songhay spread out from the Timbuktu region, and Western Songhay derives from heavy “de-creolising” influence by Eastern Songhay on an originally Northern Songhay language. To choose between these hypotheses, further fieldwork will be required.

Item Type: Articles
Keywords: historical linguistics, language contact, comparative method, Saharan history, Songhay
SOAS Departments & Centres: Faculty of Languages and Cultures > Department of Linguistics
Subjects: D History General and Old World > DT Africa
P Language and Literature > P Philology. Linguistics
P Language and Literature > PL Languages and literatures of Eastern Asia, Africa, Oceania
ISSN: 01676164
DOI (Digital Object Identifier): 10.1515/jall-2012-0008
Depositing User: Lameen Souag
Date Deposited: 26 Mar 2012 11:36
URI: http://eprints.soas.ac.uk/id/eprint/13479

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